METAR (Meteorological Aerodrome Report)

KMEM 230853Z AUTO 18014G18KT 10SM CLR 16/M02 A3008 RMK AO2 SLP117 T01561022 TSNO $ KLAX 161550Z COR 11004KT 2 1/2SM HZ BKN011 BKN015 19/16 A2993 RMK AO2 SLP134 VIS SW-NW 1 1/2 FG BNK SW-NW T01890156 KEWR 160128Z 18008KT 2 1/2SM R04R/4500VP6000FT RA BR SCT008 BKN022 OVC038 22/21 A3001 RMK AO2 RAB20E51 SCT008 V BKN P0008 KBIL 162256Z 29017G27KT 10SM FEW070 SCT085 BKN110 M02/M02 A2961 RMK AO2 PK WND 29027/2250 WSHFT 2241 SLP205 70033 T10171022 11006 21017 53016 KGTF 170322Z 33014KT 1 3/4SM -SN BR OVC005 A2991 RMK AO2 RAE17SNB17 P0004 KGTF 170253Z 33013KT 3SM -RA OVC005 02/02 A2990 RMK AO2 TWR VIS 3 SFC VIS 8 CIG 003V007 SLP147 P0000 60011 T00220017 51035 KABQ 100156Z 32010KT 280V340 10SM TS FEW033 BKN075CB OVC100 19/14 A2999 RMK AO2 TSB09RAB09E56 SLP085 FREQ LTGCCCGIC OHD TS OHD MOV NE MTN TOP OBSCD NE P0002 T01940144 SVVA 171100Z 00000KT 9999 FEW016 BKN250 21/19 Q1013 NOSIG
KMEM 4-letter ICAO location indicator
230853 Date and Time of observation followed by Z (Zulu)
AUTO Included if METAR is from an automatic, e.g. ASOS station
COR Correction to observation (CCA for Canada)
18014G18 Wind direction in tens of degrees, VRB means variable; if direction +/- 60 deg, wind shown as 180V260

Wind speed in knots, meters per second, or kilometers per hour

Wind gusts in knots, meters per second, or kilometers per hour
Visibility in meters
Visibility in statute miles (U.S.)
R04R4500VP6000FT Runway 4R RVR Runway visual range in meters (feet for the U.S.) Range value may be followed by a trend (D - down, U - up, N - no change, V - variable) for non-U.S. stations
RA Weather and/or obstruction to visibility (see table)
SCT008CB Cloud cover - SKC (sky clear) or CLR (clear below 12,000 feet for automatic stations), FEW (1-2 octas), SCT (3-4 octas), BKN (5-7 octas), or OVC (8 octas)

3-digit cloud height in hundreds of feet; obscured sky given as VV (vertical visibility), height in hundreds of feet; unknown height reported as ///; more than one layer may be reported

Cloud type, TCU (towering cumulus), CB (cumulonimbus), CBMAM (cb mammatus)
16 Temperature in degrees Celsius
M02 Dew point in degrees Celsius
Altimeter setting (mb or hP)
Altimeter setting (in Hg)(U.S. only)
RMK Remarks consisting of recent operationally significant weather as well as additive and automated maintenance data (mainly used in the U.S. and Canada) See table below.
= Denotes end of report

TAF (Terminal Aerodrome Forecast)
FedEx Terminal Forecast (FT)

KPIT 091720Z 091818 22020KT 3SM -SHRA BKN020CB 
     FM2000 30015G25KT 1SM SHRA OVC15CB PROB40 2022 1/2SM TSRA 
     FM2300 27008KT 5SM -SHRA BKN020 OVC040 WS010/30020KT 
      TEMPO 0407 0000KT 1SM -RA BR      
     FM1000 22010KT 5SM -SHRA OVC020 BECMG 1315 20010KT 7SM NSW SKC= 		 
EWR FT FEDEX  2900Z-2912Z 290046Z ABV 2000/3 OCNL 6 BKN
    3SM -SHRA BR,  VCTS 1215
    02Z 6 OVC OCNL 4 BKN 2SM -RA BR
    04Z 4 OVC 3SM BR OCNL 11/2SM -RA BR 
    06Z 5 OVC 3SM BR 
    08Z 12 BKN 3SM BR
    10Z -X 2SM BR * =
Station identifier. The TAF code uses ICAO 4-letter station identifiers. FedEx forecasts use 3-letter identifiers
FT FEDEX AMD01 FedEx weather department terminal forecast, amendment 1
091720Z Issuance time. 2-digit Date and and 4-digit zulu Time.
Valid date and time. '091818' means a 24 hour forecast valid from 1800Z on the 9th until 1800Z the following day. Valid from the 29th 0000Z to 1200Z (FedEx)
Wind. First 3 digits mean true north direction (nearest 10 deg) or VRB for variable. The next two digits mean speed and unit (KT for knots, KMH for kilometers per hour, or MPS for meters per second). Wind gust, as needed, is given as a 2-digit maximum speed. 00000KT is given for calm. If wind direction varies 60 degrees or more, variability is appended, e.g. 180V260. In FedEx forecast, direction is 2-digit, velocity is always in knots.
3SM Visibility. In the U.S., prevailing visibility is given in statue miles and fractions (SM). Outside the U.S., 4-digit sector visibility in meters is given and as required, differing in value with direction.
-SHRA Weather. Weather and/or obstruction to visibility given in code (see table below).
12 BKN
Cloud amount. Cloud amount is given as SKC (sky clear), FEW (1-2 octas), SCT (3-4 octas), BKN (5-7 octas), or OVC (8 octas). The cloud height is given in hundreds of feet. Clouds types reported are either TCU (towering cumulus) or CB (cumulonimbus). An obscured sky is reported as VV (vertical visibility) with height in hundreds of feet. (FedEx forecast uses X for sky obscured, or -X for partially obscured.) An unknown height is reported as ////. More than one layer may be forecasted or reported.
Condition start time. Start time of a weather event is given as FM (from) followed by the 4-digit hour and minutes in Zulu time. FedEx forecast use only 2-digit start hour and no FM.
PROB40 2022 Probability. The probability of a weather event occurring is given in percent along with the 2-digit Zulu hour start and end of the event.
TEMPO 0407 Temporary. Temporary changes in weather conditions are given along with the 2-digit Zulu hour start and end of the event. This signals changes to the forecast.
BECMG 1315 Becoming. What condtions will become between the two 2-digit Zulu hours given. This signals changes to a forecast.
WS010/30020KT Forecast of non-convective low-level wind shear. This group will only be given in the U.S. (following the Cloud group) and Canada (following the wind group).
* Denotes included on Maintenance/Crew Scheduling IFR alert report
= Denotes end of report
Intensity or Proximity
- Light
  Moderate (see note 2)
+ Heavy
VC In the vicinity (see note 3)
MI Shallow
PR Partial
BC Patches
DR Low Drifting
BL Blowing
SH Shower(s)
TS Thunderstorm
FZ Freezing
DZ Drizzle
RA Rain
SN Snow
SG Snow Grains
IC Ice Crystals
PL Ice Pellets
GR Hail
GS Small Hail and/or Snow Pellets
UP Unknown Precipitation
BR Mist
FG Fog
FU Smoke
VA Volcanic Ash
DU Widespread Dust
SA Sand
HZ Haze
PY Spray
PO Well- Developed Dust/Sand Whirls
SQ Squalls
FC Funnel Cloud Tornado Waterspout (see note 3)
SS Sandstorm
SS Duststorm
1. The weather groups shall be constructed by considering columns 1 to 5 in the table above in sequence, i.e. intensity, followed by description, followed by weather phenomena, e.g. heavy rain shower(s) is coded as +SHRA
2. To denote moderate intensity no entry or symbol is used.
3. Tornados and waterspouts shall be coded as +FC.

Automated, Manual, and Plain Language
AO1, AO2 Type of automated station
PK WND 29027/2250 Peak Wind 290/27 at 2250Z
WSHFT 2241 FROPA Wind Shift at 2241Z cold front passage
WS010/30020KT Wind Shear (non-convective) at 1,000 ft 300 deg at 20 kt
TWR VIS 3 Tower Visibility
SFC VIS 8 Surface Visibility
VIS 1/2V2 Variable Prevailing Visibility
VIS SW-NW 1 1/2 Sector Visibility
FRQ LTGICCCCG OHD Lightning, type direction
RAB20E51 Rain began at 20 ended at 51
TSB09RAB09E56 Thunderstorm began 09 rain began 09 ended 56
TS OHD MOV NE Thunderstorm location, movement
GR Hailstone size
VIRGA SW-W Virga, direction
CIG 003V007 Variable Ceiling Height (300 variable 700)
FU BKN020 Obscurations (>50% of sky obscured by smoke)
SCT008 V BKN Variable Sky Condition
TCU, CB, ACC, CBMAM Significant Cloud Types
PRESRR,PRESFR Pressure Rising/Falling Rapidly
SLP117 Sea-level Pressure (1011.7 mb)
ACFT MSHP Aircraft mishap
NOSPECI No SPECI reports taken
SNINCR 2/10 Snow increasing rapidly (2 in last hour/10 in on ground)
Additive Data
Leading character indicates type of data
P0008 Hourly Precipitation Amount in hundreths of inches (0.08 )
T02170144 Hourly temperature and dew point in tenths degrees C (21.7/14.4)
T10271032 (-2.7/-3.2) 1=minus sign
10272 6-hour maximum temperature in tenths degrees C (27.2)
20211 6-hour minimum temperature in tenths degrees C (21.1)
4/011 Snow depth on the ground in inches
400121023 24-hour max/min temperature in tenths degrees C
52032 3-hour pressure tendency (3.2 mb change) (see table below for 2nd digit code)
60225 3- and 6-hour precipitation amount
70125 24-hour precipitation amount
8/CUACCI Cloud Types (low, med high level)
933125 Water equivalent of snow on ground (0.01)
98460 Duration of sunshine in minutes
Automated Maintenance Data
PWINO: precipitation identifier information not available;
PNO: precipitation amount not available;
FZRANO: freezing rain information not available;
TSNO: thunderstorm information not available (may indicate augmenting weather observer not logged on);
VISNO [LOC]: visibility at second location not available, e.g. VISNO RWY06;
CHINO [LOC]: (cloud-height- indicator) sky condition at secondary location not available, e.g., CHINO RWY06.
$ Maintenance check indicator ASOS requires maintenance

Characteristics of Barometer Tendency
Description Code
Atmospheric pressure now
than 3 hours ago.
Increasing, then decreasing. 0
Increasing, then steady, or increasing then increasing more slowly. 1
Increasing steadily or unsteadily. 2
Decreasing or steady, then increasing; or increasing then increasing more rapidly. 3
Atmospheric pressure now
as 3 hours ago.
Increasing, then decreasing. 0
Steady 4
Decreasing then increasing. 5
Atmospheric pressure now

than 3 hours ago.
Decreasing, then increasing. 5
Decreasing, then steady, or decreasing then decreasing more slowly. 6
Decreasing steadily or unsteadily. 7
Steady or increasing, then decreasing; or decreasing then decreasing more rapidly. 8